# Exploring the Possibilities Whether Parallel Universes Do Exist

The concept of parallel universes have intrigued scientists for centuries, and has been an integral part of our science fiction. Can there be replicas of our universe? Can there be more than one "us"? Do things work the same way in alternate universes?

UniverSavvy Staff

Last Updated: Mar 1, 2018

**~Arthur C. Clarke**

Quantum Theory and Many-Worlds Interpretation

Understanding It

He came up with the

This idea is further supported by the

If we use this universal wave function to describe the universe, we could say that the universe is duplicated or rather split, with each possible outcome of the measurement. This theory thus, helps in describing the universe in terms of probabilities.

*universal wave function*to describe how elementary particles move around. This function describes how elementary particles like an electron, can take up different positions. A position that is assumed by an electron is as real as the other position that it takes. When you measure it, it obviously takes one position, which in quantum mechanics is just one probability. This might vary as you measure it again in the same way.This idea is further supported by the

*Copenhagen interpretation*of quantum mechanics which states that all quantum particles do not exist in one state or other, but rather in all of its possible states at once. This is known as superimposition. The only difference is our observation which allows the object to choose just one state.If we use this universal wave function to describe the universe, we could say that the universe is duplicated or rather split, with each possible outcome of the measurement. This theory thus, helps in describing the universe in terms of probabilities.

What it Implies

What it means is that there are different and equally real set of circumstances in separate universes. It is our choice that splits the universe. So, if you have a near fatal accident in your current universe, in another parallel universe you would probably be dead. The probabilities are endless.

String Theory and "Bubble Universes"

Understanding It

According to this theory, the universe can be explained in form of ten to eleven strings that vibrate in not one, but eleven dimensions. Instead of the point-like particles of particle physics, they are replaced by one-dimensional strings which oscillate in many ways. Michio Kaku, who co-founded the field theory of strings in the late 1960s' likens universe with soap bubbles that are constantly expanding and dying out. Our universe is just one bubble among them. Brian Greene refers to this as "Inflationary multiverse."

What it Implies

According to string theorists, the parallel universes or the soap bubbles as they say, can come into contact with each other. When this happens the gravity can flow between these two bubbles leading to a Big Bang, similar to the one in which our universe was created. They also believe that the laws in these universes can be vastly different from the one which we inhabit.

String Theory and "Brane multiverse"

*The Hidden Reality.*According to this theory, our universe is a three-dimensional brane. Brane (short for membrane) refers to objects that can have any number of dimensions. Similar branes with different dimensions could have other parallel universes in them.

Understanding It

One of the best ways to understand the concept of "braneworlds" is provided by Brian Greene. He says that "

*our universe is one of potentially numerous 'slabs' floating in a higher-dimensional space, much like a slice of bread within a grander cosmic loaf*."What it Implies

These branes are not necessarily parallel to each other, and may at some point slam into each other, thus causing the Big Bang. This cyclic multiverse resets the universe multiple times.

Like the "brane multiverse" and bubble universes, string theory leads to other classifications of parallel universe like the "quilted multiverse" which says that, since space is infinite, there are other regions that could be exactly like our own. "Holographic multiverse" that stems from string theory and the holographic principle, explains that there is a distant bounding surface, possibly the edge of the universe, in which everything from our universe is precisely mirrored.

Like the "brane multiverse" and bubble universes, string theory leads to other classifications of parallel universe like the "quilted multiverse" which says that, since space is infinite, there are other regions that could be exactly like our own. "Holographic multiverse" that stems from string theory and the holographic principle, explains that there is a distant bounding surface, possibly the edge of the universe, in which everything from our universe is precisely mirrored.